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Health Inequalities

Due North: Inquiry on Health Equity for the North (September 2014)
There has been a North-South health divide in England for a long time now, with the gap continuing to widen over the past four decades. The causes of health inequality are broadly similar across the country and on average, poor health increases with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. But the severity of these causes is greater in the North. Further, austerity measures are making the situation even worse, impacting more heavily on the North and disadvantaged areas. It is against this background that the independent Inquiry on Health Equity for the North was set up. The report, Due North, details evidence on trends in health inequalities and a set of recommendations. It has sought to bring a fresh perspective to the issue of health inequalities, seeking to build upon the assets of the North to target inequalities, whilst also outlining what central government needs to do, both to support action at the regional level and re-orientate national policies to reduce inequalities. 

View the Executive Summary or for the full report

Natural Solutions to Tackling Health Inequalities’ report (2014)
The report highlights the evidence of the benefits of green spaces to health and wellbeing outcomes, and the inequalities in use of, and access to, natural environments across England. Together this information presents real challenges for everyone at both national and local levels, to better utilise the natural environment to help tackle health inequality.

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Download Health Inequalities Chapter (Warning large document) (Last refreshed October 2012)

Marmot and Health Inequalities

Indicators for Local Authorities in England

Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review report was published in February 2010, presenting the recommendations of the Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post-2010. In February 2011, the first Marmot Indicators for local authorities were released, providing information to support monitoring of the overall strategic direction in reducing health inequalities. These indicators were updated in 2012.

Then launched in September 2014 by the Institute of Health Equity, the Marmot Indicators 2014 were developed in collaboration with Public Health England.

They are a new set of indicators of the social determinants of health, health outcomes and social inequality, that broadly correspond to the policy recommendations proposed in Fair Society, Healthy Lives.

These 2014 indicators can be accessed below in a spine chart format, which displays data for the following:

  • Healthy life expectancy at birth – males and females
  • Life expectancy at birth – males and females
  • Inequality in life expectancy at birth – males and females
  • People reporting low life satisfaction
  • Good level of development at age 5
  • Good level of development at age 5 with free school meal status
  • GCSE achieved (5A*-C including English & Maths)
  • GCSE achieved (5A*-C including English & Maths) with free school meal status
  • 19-24 year olds who are not in employment, education or training
  • Unemployment % (ONS model-based method)
  • Long-term claimants of Jobseeker's Allowance
  • Work-related illness
  • Households not reaching Minimum Income Standard
  • Fuel poverty for high fuel cost households
  • Percentage of people using outdoor places for exercise/health reasons

There are a number of key issues facing Wirral residents based upon the analysis in this report and in addition are likely to be felt more acutely in areas of the borough facing greatest disadvantage. To rebalance these outcomes a number of initiatives are in place and being developed to mitigate impacts and reduce future incidence. 

The Segment Tool 2015 - Segmenting life expectancy gaps by cause of death

The Segment Tool has been developed by the Public Health England (PHE) Knowledge and Intelligence Teams (London and East Midlands) and provides information on the causes of death that are driving inequalities in life expectancy at local area level. Targeting the causes of death which contribute most to the life expectancy gap should have the biggest impact on reducing inequalities.

The tool uses data for 2010-12 and allows users to view the breakdown of the life expectancy gap both within local authority areas, and between a local authority and England as a whole.

As with the previous version, the tool examines life expectancy gaps between each local authority as a whole and England as a whole, and between the most and least deprived quintile within each local authority. The updated tool also includes new charts showing life years gained or lost for selected causes of death.

For more details visit the London Knowledge and Intelligence Team (PHE) website